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The Meaning of Technical Translation

Of course, most technical texts and translations are used to impart technical information.
However, sometimes this is not the sole purpose of a technical document.

Texts are multi-functional. Not only do they convey technical information, they can also in certain cases give evidence of the biases and beliefs of the original writer.

If the only intention of a technical translation is to transmit technical information then, or course, terminology is the first problem for a translator.

Terminology can be a difficult and time-consuming area for a technical translator. However, once the terminological problems have been conquered, the translator should then analyze the direction of thought of the original writer. Sometimes the bias of that writer can affect the reaction of the reader, and sometimes that bias is expressed in very subtle ways.

Much research has been devoted to the hunt for terminology, but unfortunately many of the results of that research have led to a professional translator being bounded by dictionary definitions. It is precisely here that practical work in the past by an engineer, technician or scientist, working in the field concerned and using and learning technical vocabulary in a foreign language, will lead to the use of the correct translation for practically any technical term.

In our 21st century, the range of technology has become so vast that people with practical knowledge of the technology concerned are the only people who can translate technical texts correctly, because not only do they know the vocabulary in their native language and in the language of the country in which they are working, but also they know “how the thing works”.

Such professional “on-the-job” acquisition of technical terms has been by far the best way to build up technical vocabulary. And in addition, as mentioned above, this can lead to the translator becoming aware of the bias of the original writer, and in that case the translator is usually fully aware of why the original writer was following that direction of thought.

It is obvious from simple analysis of practically any technical text that technical terminology takes up only 5 to 10% of the text. The remainder of the text consists of ordinary language, connecting and often influencing the meaning of the terminology.

A strategy should be set up for the translation of any text (whether it is literary,
technical or legal). The fact that it belongs to one or more of these categories is useful to the translator, but that is only one factor from among several other ones.

It can be seen from the above study that it is of the greatest importance that the translator should understand the basic purpose of a given text, together with the direction of thought of the translator. If possible, in certain cases, it would be very useful if the translator were able to discuss the text with its original author, to fix on all the purposes of the text.

Also, the translator should know that in reality there is no such thing as a
“technical text” in fact it consists of a number of words which also use “technical language”. The traditional view of technical texts is that they impart technical information. However in some cases, they can also be highly expressive and also persuasive.

Technical Translation Ltd has made it its policy to use, wherever possible, translators who have practical working experience in the field concerned.



Looking in the Internet search engines, you can find plenty of Greek translators, including free of charge on-line translators, and they are probably acceptable if you just require a simple translation.
However, what do you do if you want a contract translated? Or maybe you need a technical paper to be translated, not merely with 100% accuracy, but also attractive in its composition. When you need this, it would be better to employ a translation agency which is fully cognizant in the Greek language rather than hiring a freelance translator.
There are several problems that could occur when a Greek translation is needed.

1.         Medical or Technical Terminology
Both technical and medical writing are difficult fields. Even some of the most knowledgeable specialists in their respective fields have difficulty in reading directions and technical documents written in foreign languages. Adding international standards like ISO into the equation would make accurate translation even more difficult for an amateur. Therefore, if you need a precise Greek translation, there are two possibilities: either you will have to hire a translator who is familiar with your particular field, or, if you cannot find a translator who is perfectly acquainted with the technology or the professional field concerned, at least after he or she has completed the translation, you will have to find a proof-reader who knows the technical terminology and who can verify the accuracy of the document after translation. Obtaining a translator/proof-reader who meets these qualifications is difficult. In most cases, the job is better left to a good translation agency.

2          Legal Specifications, Formats and Government Requirements
Each and every government on the planet uses plenty of paperwork; it is just something that cannot be avoided. Marriage certificates, death certificates, identification documents, passports, diplomas... all of these are just a few of the most common examples. When someone migrates to a different country, all these documents need to be translated, but each and every government has decided on a certain format in which it wants them. You can get a loose Greek translation that shows something comparable to the original, but will it be compatible with all the government’s requirements?
You want your documents to be translated precisely and accurately in a way that conforms to the legal requirements of the country concerned. To achieve this, it really is best to employ a translation agency - if possible, one that has done work comparable to the documents that you need to be  translated. In the case of Greece, such an agency ought to be acquainted with the documents that are most frequently encountered in Greece and should also know how you are to handle them.

3.         Appearance and substance of the text
When preparing translation for advertising, for example, it's not merely crucial for the resulting text to push forward the same idea as the original. It is also essential that the translation uses the same context. When a person reads or listens to the translation, that identical understanding must be conveyed to them. A great deal of advertising is successful because it conveys a strong message. A lot of translated advertising fails simply because it does not convey the same message. The translation agency that you hire should use Greek idioms, expressions and culture in order to provide the best possible benefit for the advertiser. When it comes to applications and internet site translation, the best international translation agencies also do a much better job.
The Greek language is one of the oldest languages in the world and there are about 20 million people who speak it. You may not know this, but many of the technical and scientific terms utilized right now throughout the world in many different modern languages, are derived from the Greek language. The Greek language can sometimes be difficult to translate because it has such wealth of vocabulary and is so diverse. When hiring a translation agency, make sure that you employ only the best.

Technical Translation Ltd has many Greek translators, covering almost every conceivable field.


Spanish Translation Can Give You Higher Profits

Companies in the USA are seeing a boom from the fast growing Hispanic market – a boom which should last  for many years. A marketing strategy which uses Spanish translations should give companies higher profits if they follow some sensible rules in their marketing strategy for translated advertising, etc.

Going right back to the year 2005, TNS Media Intelligence claims that marketers invested 10.5% more in America's largest foreign-speaking minority than they did in 2004. Looking at the overall U.S. market, marketers only invested 3.4 percent more in 2005 than they did in 2004. Was this sector overworked? In no way. In fact Synovate (a world-wide market intelligence and research company) stated in 2004 that 43.5 million U.S. Hispanics made up nearly 15 percent of the total U.S. population - a percentage which is growing 5 times faster than the rest of the general population, more than a 70% increase over the 10 years from 1995 to 2005.

By 2013, the Hispanic total in the US has grown to 53 million, or 17% of the US population, in spite of the 34% fall in the Hispanic birth rate in the years of the recession. By the year 2020, which is only 6 short years away, nearly 20% or 1 in 5 Americans will be of Hispanic origin. That source also informed us that the net natural growth of the Hispanic population (births minus deaths) exceeded immigration as the principal source of population increase. Over 1 million children were born to Hispanic mothers in 2005 and this will increase in the foreseeable future.
Looking at the figures for 2012, almost a quarter of the nation’s births were to Hispanic women, and of these, nearly half (47 percent) were to unmarried women. At a median age of 27, Hispanics are the youngest population group in the country. Eighty-six percent of Latinos under 17  and 59 percent of Hispanics over 18 either only speak English or speak it very well.

The share of Latinos with a high school diploma rose significantly, from 52 percent in 2000 to 63 percent in 2011. College enrollment grew from 20 percent of 18 to 24-year-old Latinos in 2000 to 33 percent in 2011.  In terms of college completion, 13 percent of Hispanics over 25 had a college degree; it was 10 percent in 2000.

While the median household income in the U.S. is $50,000, the median income of native-born Latinos is $42,400 and for foreign-born it is $35,900. The Hispanic poverty rate is significantly higher than the overall population; for Latinos it’s 26 percent compared to 16 percent overall. Twenty two percent of Hispanic households receive food stamps, compared to 13 of the general population, and 30 percent of Latinos lack health insurance, compared to 15 percent of all Americans.

Hispanics are becoming increasingly affluent: 64% percent are now firmly within the nation's middle class and more than half are buying their first homes, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. Hispanics have entered cyberspace with 33.5 million U.S. Hispanics online. Yet the companies successfully targeting online Hispanics in the direct response arena are few and far between.
Have you ever wondered how companies will market to the Hispanics?

This a constantly growing marketplace for which marketers are still often failing to capitalize. One of the biggest errors is that many companies and advertisers are taking a one-size-fits-all approach to the Spanish language. There are many different variations in the Spanish language and first of all you must consider to whom you are marketing.

There are many cultural, linguistic and other factors in the various origins of the Spanish language in Central and South America, and to cope with all these variations is not easy. Which marketers have the resources to learn so much about another culture that they can learn local expressions, cultural importance and humour? The answer is hardly any.

The best partners for advertisers and marketing departments are translation services companies who use Spanish translators from all the major Spanish-speaking markets. Native translators who can translate for the culture of a particular country or area and not just from a linguistic point of view.

Does a Mexican American consumer laugh or cry at the same expressions as a Cuban American? Do you think that Mexicans or Cubans could be offended by different language or ideas? Consult a native-born Spanish translator working for a translation company to make sure. You must be one click away from a sale and not one click away from the exit.
There is no doubt that translation is a cost for marketers and advertisers. However, companies should consider creating a Spanish-language website as an investment for the future rather than just as an expense. For 30-plus years, the Hispanic market has shown growth in both market size and purchasing power. Companies can no longer ignore the cost of not doing business with 53 million Hispanics forming 17% of the total US population.

This includes your US company.




The first scenario : Automatic translation before human translation

The advantage of using automatic translation before the human translation process is to avoid disturbing the mental operations needed for translation and, of course, to save time.

If the results obtained by the automatic translation are sufficiently satisfactory to enable their use, we would envisage “sub-contracting”, a part of the text to be translated. The objective is to save some of the work by having it done automatically by the machine and thus save time. The success of this approach depends to a great extent on the quality of the text obtained by automatic translation and of the final use of the text obtained in this way. In the framework of official use of a text in the target language (and not just simple access to the meaning of the source text), it is possible, even probable, that the importance of the post-edition work necessary to arrive at a satisfactory end result would lose all or part of the saving in time obtained by not having to translate certain passages.

However, a translator wants where possible to be able to use the “intermediate text” coming from the automatic process to be able to transform it into a real translation of the source text. This “intermediate text” which is the result of the automatic translation, is a text which uses the linguistic elements in the target text without fully following the rules for their use.

Items with inconsistencies to be corrected are grammatical faults (in the case of Latin languages, incorrect agreement), logical (broken sense) or terminological (selecting an inappropriate word or expression). Also sometimes omissions occur (non-translated passages) or the absence of insertion of elements which could provide immediate comprehension of the text by the reader.

Second scenario : Using automatic translation as a supplement

To avoid having to correct too many errors in the automatic translation, the translator would be free to limit its use and to use it only as a supplement to translation memories. The scenario would then be as follows:

1st step: The text to be translated is compared to the translation memories => inserting passages already translation from the target version.
2nd step: The text to be translated is translated automatically => conserving any results that the translator finds sufficiently correct.
3rd step: The remainder of the

text, that is to say that part which has not been translated by either of the above systems, is then translated by the professional translator.
Following these two approaches, the translation will then have passages in his or her text which arise from translation memories mixed with passages translated automatically. This concerns two very different types of translation: the first being the fruit of human intellectual effort which has been validated, the second being a logical “construction”  which could present the inconsistences listed above.

The translator is obliged to differentiate between the two types of information and to treat them differently: passages coming from the translation memories are a priori correct from a syntactical point of view and, if those memories were correctly administered, they are functionally equivalent to the source passages with which they were aligned, the syntactical inconsistency of the proposed passages adding to the risk of inappropriateness compared to the source text.

However, as Technical Translation Ltd, what we find after experimentation with the above translation processes, is that too much time is wasted by the process for mixing the translation memories with the automatic translation and then the analysis of the result by the human translator, followed by his or her correction of the final result and finally the translation of those parts not machine translated.

We find that a good, experienced human translator, who has perfect knowledge of the technical or other professional language and the practical work involved, can produce a better translation in a shorter length of time, thus saving costs for our customers and ensuring that the translation is correct in every respect.


Literary Translation in France

France is a country which is very well placed in the literary world, particularly when we look at the amount of literature coming into France from foreign countries. As a percentage, there is three times more foreign literature available in France than in the United States.

As regards contemporary Chinese literature; two to three times more is translated every year than in the English-speaking countries.
The approach of book publishers is basically the same, even in the case of classical literature where Belles Lettres have just brought out two additional volumes (“Commémorations” by Su Shi, translated and annotated by Stéphane Feuillas and “Les Dix-neuf poèmes anciens” (“The 19 old poems”), translated and annotated by Jean-Pierre Diény).

Taking inrto account this bilingual collection from the Chinese Library, which is managed by Anne Cheng and Marc Kalinowski, publishing of translated works in France can rival American university collections.

For contemporary literature, specialised publishers (Philippe Picquier Bleu de Chine) have played a major role, to the same extent as some big publishers (Le Seuil, Actes Sud) or small companies, which are particularly good for publishing poetry (Editions Caractères Meet de Saint-Nazaire).
But there are also some translators who themselves have a determining role, due in the first instance to the quality of their translations, but also due to the promotional efforts they make for the works of the writers that they so admire.

A passion but also a profession
A large proportion of literary translators also have another job which, as they say in English-speaking countries; “pays the rent”; they often work in secondary or university education or in research organisations. This is an unfortunate situation, and it arises from the fact that literary translation is far less well paid than technical translation. However the same problem also exists in England and in the USA.

The promotion of literary works and of international exchanges is absolutely necessary and we know that such exchanges, usually organised by the translators themselves, are of a quality level which  is far higher than the symposia that are sometimes organised by official departments.
For example, the French-Chinese literary dialogues, the ten Alibi workshops (bipolar literary workshops), organised by Annie Bergeret-Curien, a researcher at the CNRS and a translator (in particular of the great writer Han Shaogong), who has supplied results of a quality which has been published (by la Maison des sciences de l’homme). For these dialogues, two writers, one Chinese and one French, each compose a story on a given common theme; once they are written, the texts are translated and a meeting is arranged between the two writers and their translators..

High level symposia concerning the translations and the original works are organised by the team from the university of Provence, meeting with Noël Dutrait. The site for this team, led by Pierre Kaser, plays an important role in France to spread knowledge of Asian literature, in the same way as is done by the magazine Ideo, Impressions of the Far East, an Internet magazine whose second number is coming out soon.
Other universities in France have developed their translation activity around the people who do their research work, such as Sebastian Veg who has translated and also commented on two major collections of works by Lu Xun.


Taiwan: possibly the best place in the world for learning Chinese

If you want to learn Mandarin Chinese and you’re going to China, you will find that the experience will give you much more than just learning a language. You will make an amazing journey into China's ancient history and culture. Also, you will find that one of the best ways of learning the language is to get to know local people, and to understand their traditions and their religious beliefs.

Of course there are many different locations where you could follow your language course, Beijing, Shanghai or any of the new China's huge cities, but you might also find that there is no better place for such an intense and fun experience as Taipei, in Taiwan.
Language students in Taipei experience, on the one hand, the hectic and international life of a capital city, with a population of nearly 7 million people. It has all kinds of shops, restaurants and landmarks like the Taipei 101 tower, the second tallest building in the world. On the other hand, those students can also dive into China's most traditional life when visiting any of the city's vast range of temples, ranging from those dedicated to Buddha, to those on Taoist or Confucian sites.


It is always interesting for foreign visitors to visit a traditional Chinese Medicine pharmacy and after that, one of the wonderful things in Taipei at more or less any time of the night is to sample  some of the dozens of different snacks on sale in Taipei's famous night markets. The locals have decided that eating is their favourite pastime and it is incredible just how many restaurants, cookshops, food stands and snack bars you will find offering a huge variety of dishes, including sweet dishes from Shanghai, Beijing crispy roasted duck, spicy Szechuan wonders, Cantonese dim sum and every sort of special dish that the Chinese people have devised over the last three or four thousand years.

It is always interesting for foreign visitors to visit a traditional Chinese Medicine pharmacy and after that, one of the wonderful things in Taipei at more or less any time of the night is to sample  some of the dozens of different snacks on sale in Taipei's famous night markets. The locals have decided that eating is their favourite pastime and it is incredible just how many restaurants, cookshops, food stands and snack bars you will find offering a huge variety of dishes, including sweet dishes from Shanghai, Beijing crispy roasted duck, spicy Szechuan wonders, Cantonese dim sum and every sort of special dish that the Chinese people have devised over the last three or four thousand years.  

There is a vast range of shops in Taiwan, some selling high-tech devices, others marketing handicrafts and locally made designer clothes, some inspired from traditional patterns, others copying the latest fashions in Europe and the USA. Indeed, Taiwan offers a blend of the high-tech contemporary life style coupled with traditional ways of life from a thousand years ago. In some parts of Taiwan you can find ways of life that have disappeared from mainland China over the last 80 years, showing you what Chinese life might have been like at the start of the 20th century.
If you go to study Chinese translation, vocabulary and grammar in “Formosa” (Portuguese for "beautiful", the name given to Taiwan by Portuguese sailors in the 16th century) there are wonderful opportunities there to explore some of the best managed National Parks in Asia. Using the island's high speed train network, superb outdoor adventures are easily reached, including climbing the highest peak in East Asia, leisure time on white sandy beaches, slashing your way through dense tropical jungle or sailing through magnificent canyons on a raft. If you prefer to travel "solo" you can always rent a car to explore the island as long as you have an International Driver's Licence.

Finally, Taiwan has many other advantages for young students: besides having one of the world‘s lowest crime rates, Taiwan has available very modern medical facilities and rescue services.

Last but not least, Taiwan does not require an entry visa for citizens of most countries and that makes it easy for you to plan side trips to other destinations in Asia during your Mandarin Chinese language course.

If you are planning to learn Chinese in China don't think it twice about it, Taiwan is the perfect destination for you !


Google Glass

Google Glass, the new Google internet-connected eyewear, was on sale to the general public in the USA for the first time and for only one day. Before this point Google limited the sale of the $1,500 eyewear to software developers and to other carefully-selected specialists and businesses.

The appliance uses a small clear strip that operates in the same way as a high-definition computer screen. That strip is fastened to spectacle frames and is located just inside a wearer’s field of vision. People using this device can connect to the internet, find out where they are located and can record videos. It is already being used in various sectors. It can be used for instant language translation in the case of foreign passengers or hospital patients.
A Boston hospital Medical Centre has used this Google Glass appliance to check patient records via the QR codes which are displayed on their room doors. This enables doctors to keep their hands free when they are checking patient’s details online.

Doctor Steven Horng has credited the appliance with helping to save the life of a patient. The man was suffering from a brain haemorrhage. Dr Horng was able instantly to check the  medical history of the man. This patient was allergic to a specific kind of blood pressure drug which is regularly used to prevent bleeding, and the new applicance enabled Dr Horng to check on that allergy without having to leave the patient to leaf through papers or to search the patient’s history on a desktop computer..

In other hospitals the Google Glass device has been used for streaming operations to medical students, for training surgeons in the restoration of cleft palettes and for helping surgeons to monitor patients' vital signs without taking their eyes away from the operating table.
Virgin Atlantic Upper Class Wing staff members are at present using Google Glass in a pilot scheme at London’s Heathrow Airport in order to help identify passengers and check them in.

SITA has created a specially built app which together with Virgin's passenger system identifies passengers on approach and sends the information to the staff member wearing the Google Glass, who can also use it to update customers quickly with flight and weather information, as well as foreign language translation.

In future, the technology could also be used to inform airline staff of their passengers’ dietary and refreshment requirements.
Google Glass is now being tested by the New York City Police Department to see if these wearable computers could be useful for law enforcement.
The Glass system has a built-in camera that can record videos and which might be useful in collecting evidence. It can also run apps such as NameTag, which can photograph a person and then identify them by searching social networks for a match.

If the device were to be widely adopted by police it could be installed with an app that allows police officers to search databases of known offenders and also outstanding arrest warrants in the same way.



English is the most sought after language on the Internet, but Russian runs it a close second.

а б в г д е ё ж з и й к л м н о п р с т у ф х ц ч ш щ ъ ы ь э ю я
а б в г д е ё ж з и й к л м н о п р с т у ф х ц ч ш щ ъ ы ь э ю я

French and Spanish are also languages which people are searching for, but Russian still has more demand than either of those.. The reason is that

Russia, with a population of over 140 million citizens, has been isolated from rest of the world for a long time, so Russians do not find English easy to learn or to speak.

Most people browse the Internet in English, but in the case of the Russians, most of them can’t do that. Or course English is not the first language of Russians and the majority of the Russian people hardly get any experience of actually speaking or even hearing English over their entire life-time. This limitation in their language doesn′t prevent them from surfing the internet, but Russians generally surf the internet only looking for Russian content.

This problem of language with the Russians is now becoming well-known and more and more webmasters are working hard to take advantage of it People are now opting for translation services  for Russian websites so as to be able to enter the vast Russian-speaking market.

In the world of the web, it is not too difficult to translate one language to another language. Nowadays, a number of machine translation tools exist which are constantly being improved and developed. You can  find every sort of instant translation service via a search on the internet. These instant translation services are sufficient to convey your message most of the time and it’s even easier to understand the meaning when you translate from a foreign language into your own language, but, as these translation programs use a machine (a computer program) rather than a human translator, their results are often clumsy and sometimes hilarious!.

A language is made up of  various things such as its grammar, its vocabulary, the local context and so on. Machine translation cannot follow every aspect of Russian or of any other language and it usually just translates on a more or less word for word basis, rather than trying to substitute whole phrases by their Russian counterpart.
The translations made by a machine are often pathetic and can also surprise a Russian native speaker with their sentences, which can be very strange from a grammatical point of view. So while we can see that this easy translation using machines can sometimes serve a purpose, if only just to get a general sense of what the foreign author was trying to convey, when it comes to a website translation, the final result has to be as accurate as possible and it must use a vocabulary which is locally acceptable by the persons reading the website concerned..

Using a machine to rephrase English words in Russian is simply not going to provide you with the results you want. For better translations, other options are also available. The world of the web is full of translation tools and software but, also it can direct you to thousands of websites offering professional human translation services for documents or websites.
All of these website translation services are available to you. Their services consist of a team of expert translators into and from Russian. You will need a native Russian translator for English to Russian work and the opposite for Russian to English.

There are specialist translators available who know how to translate a website dealing with the most problematic or technical aspects of the Russian and/or the English language.

Technical Translation Ltd has a very wide range of specialists in all languages, but particularly in Russian.



The new decree in France concerning translation of criminal procedures.


There is a new preliminary article of the Criminal Procedure Code, which states the following :  If the suspected or prosecuted person does not understand the French language, that person has the right, in a language that he or she understands and up to the end of the procedure, to the assistance of an interpreter, including for discussions with his or her lawyer having a direct link with any interrogation or any hearing, and, unless there is an express  and well-informed renunciation by the person concerned, to the translation of the documents essential to the exercise of his or her defence and to the guarantee of the fair nature of the process which must, under these terms, be given to or notified to the person concerned in application of this code.

This modification to the preliminary article of the Criminal Procedure Code has come about  from the European Parliament and from the Council. It was adopted on 8th October 2010, and it concerns the rights to interpretation and translation during criminal procedures.

This Directive itself arises from the Agreement for Safeguarding the Rights of Man dated 4th November 1950:  Any person arrested must be informed, in the shortest possible time and in a language that he or she understands, of the reasons for his or her arrest and of any accusation made against him or her and also, if the person does not understand or does not speak the language used in the hearing.

The decree concerns discussions with a lawyer as mentioned in the preliminary article, documents which are essential for the procedure and also the methods to be used for selecting an interpreter or a translator. The decree also applies to persons who have disabilities as regards their speech or hearing:

The right to have an interpreter during hearings:
The right exists that the assistance of an interpreter must be supplied without delay in cases where it is found that an arrested person does not speak or does not understand the French language,

The right to an interpreter during discussions of the person with his or her lawyer:
Rights also exist for discussions with a lawyer in which an interpreter must supply his or her help if the arrested person so requires . These rights are as follows:

1° During police custody or any other measure which deprives the person of his or her liberty, the procedure for which is wholly or partially defined in the existing requirements for  police custody;
2° Prior to the hearing by a magistrate or the appearance before a court of law;
3° Prior to any filing  of recourse against any legal decision;
4° Prior to any filing of a request for release.
It is not difficult to imagine the difficulties that could arise from the practical implementation of this article. However, if an arrested person requests an interpreter during these discussions with his or her lawyer, and that person cannot have the benefit of an interpreter, grounds for nullity could be brought under the terms of the preliminary article of the Criminal Procedure Code.

Translation of documents which are essential to the exercise of the defence:
The following are to be translated in application of the preliminary part of the article!
1° Decisions for placing under provisional detention, prolongation or maintenance of detention, or rejection of a request for release and orders for incarceration pronounced under the terms of the execution of a European arrest warrant;
2° Decisions for submitting a case for court judgement;
3° Decisions ruling on public action and covering sentences pronounced or homologated by a court of law;
4° The minutes of the first appearance or a supplementary examination, when a copy has been required.
A translation must be made within a reasonable lead time so as to permit the exercise of the rights of the defence and also to take into account the number and the complexity of the documents to be translated and the language into which they must be translated.
What is the result if one of these decisions is not translated? It is easy to think that grounds for nullity or a means of appeal could be instituted based on the preliminary artiucle of the new code.

Appointing the interpreter or translator:
In fact, before the introduction of this latest article of the Criminal Procedure Code, there was a practice which was sometimes used in investigation departments. That is to say, the practice of appointing as an interpreter a member of the investigating team who spke the foreign language of the arrested person or of the person in police custody.

In point of fact, the Criminal Procedure Code requires that “In case of necessity, a person of major age can be appointed who is not on any of these lists, as long as this interpreter or translator is not chosen from among the investigators, the magistracy or the clerks of the court responsible for the dossier, the parties concerned or the witnesses. »

It is interesting to note that any violation of the provisions of the preliminary article of the Criminal Procedure Code could lead to claiming grounds for nullity. It is therefore necessary to handle this situation in a professional manner when the arrested person, the person subject to prosecution or the person under police custody does not understand or does not speak the French language.



At present, my company’s Website is only available in English and French, but we are thinking about getting it translated also into German. Is a translation agency such as able to supply a German translation of our website?
The site issues regular articles and quotes for translation of Websites. Our newsletter regularly proposes localization of websites – localisation can be almost as important as translation, when it comes to making your website interesting to readers in the country concerned for that language. We also publish a press report on the subject of our offer for translation and localisation of Websites.

At Technical-translation we undertake to deliver Website translations to our customers  in the same format as the one in which they sent it to us for translation.  If you ask for the translation of HTML files, we will send you back the same HTML files, but translated into the foreign language you require. If you send us PhP files, we will send you back PhP files. If the Website is based on a SQL database (dynamic translation site), send it to us and we will send you back in the same format, but translated into the language you require.

But, in addition to the translation of the text, the translation of a Website requires other key input from the translation agency.
Every country has its own culture, and that is where localization comes into the picture. We use only native-language translators, residing in the country of their birth, and they know all the nuances which they can introduce into the translation, to make their readers feel comfortable with the translation – to make those readers not even realise that what they are reading is a translation :

In addition, to ensure that search engines can crawl your site and bring it towards their first page, we can identify and translate the keywords for your site, writing effective titles for your site in the foreign language and also translating the META keywords and the META description. We also can translate research expressions so as to compose a Google, Yahoo or Live publicity campaign,
In fact, contact us, is a specialist in translating Websites !


Translating your success

When your company is presented in an article in a magazine or a newspaper as a company with a presence in the international market, and the article explains to the reader just how successful your company is, why not get that translated?
The whole world has a right to know !

Of course, if you want that favourable article to be distributed around the world, it will have to be translated into the languages of your foreign customers. But you don’t have anyone in your company  who knows the right foreign languages, who has the resources or even the time. This is where you need a good translation company who can translate the article into as many languages as you want.

We can easily and quickly translate your magazine or newspaper articles into those languages, thus providing you with high quality articles translated by experts into their native languages – and our prices are most competitive as well !

The advantages of
Above all, when your company is often mentioned, either in on-line magazines, newspapers or company documentation, that is a wonderful opportunity to get your company known by the customer !

Above all, the people reading the article discover the innovations and the success of your company. They are interested in your products and services. They may want to invest in the company, or work with your company but, above all, they want to BUY your products.

Mais pour vous faire connaître dans le monde entier et, de fait, bénéficier d'une plus grande visibilité, il est judicieux de faire traduire l’article dans les langues parlées sur vos marchés cibles.

De cette manière, vous ouvrez la voie à de nouveaux partenariats et investissements, et en oeuvrant bien, votre entreprise croîtra rapidement grâce à la publicité générée par les articles traduits.

BeTranslated vous garantit des traductions fidèles d’articles de magazines, de comptes rendus de journaux et autres documents du même genre à un coût raisonnable. Vous apprécierez notre flexibilité et nos services attentifs aux souhaits de nos clients.
Appelez-nous dès aujourd’hui et parlons ensemble de la façon d’utiliser la traduction pour atteindre une plus forte croissance sur le marché mondial, qu’il s’agisse d’articles de magazines, de journaux ou de n’importe quel autre document.



First come, first served

Sometimes customers ask me to reserve a certain time period for the translation of their articles. They tell me “My boss has to approve three texts on Thursday morning; so I can only send you those texts about 12 noon on that day, and I want the translations before 5pm on the same day”.
From experience, I know that the boss he is talking about has a thousand and one things to do on that morning and that he will not have enough time to read the articles before midday. Or yet again, that the boss is going to make a series of corrections so that his communication manager will only be able to send me the translations three hours later, or even the next day, leaving me only three hours to translate 2000 words.

So I refuse to reserve him that time period on a promise he has made. No customer is going to pay me for twiddling my thumbs all Thursday afternoon and the “I am so sorry” excuse does not provide me with any money. Also there is a strong possibility that I would have had to refuse other translation orders so as to fall in with this customer’s requirement, thus putting other customers off my services as a result.

When I look at the case of interpreters, they still have to be paid if the person concerned by the interpreting job doesn’t turn up, or if they change the meeting to another day. That is the accepted practice because the interpreter has reserved that entire day for that customer and he or she is not able suddenly to find another interpreting job at such short notice.

To be brief, a translator never makes any money by reserving a time period for a customer who hasn’t received his document yet.
Send me the document and I’ll do the translation.

Finally I stick to the old, well-known adage “First come, first served”


In the present context of globalisation

In the present globalisation context, cultural relations have taken on more importance and the increase in transnational agreements has brought about a real overlapping or interweaving of legal systems. And the demand for legal translation is still continuously increasing.

Legal translation is a complicated exercise and one which must combine:

  • Advanced legal knowledge
  • Mastery of the source and the target language
  • A high level of writing skill to be able to translate any nuances in the source text.

To translate an English contract into French implies changing it from Anglo-Saxon law into Roman law and consists of making the principles in the two systems coincide, when in certain cases they are quite far from each other. So the target text must be equivalent to, but not identical to the source text. This applies all the more so in that each system uses its own legal terminology.

A legal translator must not just be satisfied with translating, he or she must carry out terminological research into compared law, so that his or her translation is perfectly appropriate to convey the sense from the source to  the target.
Legal translation is not trivial. A legal translator requires knowledge, adaptability and finesse in his or her translation. It is often much more difficult than other types of translation: the challenges are far greater than in a general translation !

In point of fact, in same way as for medicine, law has a huge technical and rigorous vocabulary.
If it is not translated exactly or if it is only slightly abbreviated, the sense can change or even be reversed, which is not acceptable.
In addition, localising a legal text, and then integrating it into a cultural context are two  fundamental steps in translation.

A financial lawyer once made the following statement: “In the marketing framework  of the OPCVM, we have recourse to a translator who specialises in financial law. However, some translation companies do not master that specialised language so they make errors in the translation. Therefore we often have recourse to several different translation agencies before we find a company with which we can form a durable partnership/.

Forming such a partnership in that way enables a translation glossary to be created, with a view to providing a certain homogeneity of translation from one document to another.


Translation in Romania

Over past years Romania has seen constant progress in technology that has had a very strong impact in a variety of fields, such as the economy, education, industry, media, the political field and other important areas. One of the most important of all these is the home computer, which has  now become completely irreplaceable and is involved in almost all areas of activity, from which both education and mass media are benefiting on a continuous basis.

As a result, new concepts have come into Romania, including such areas as multimedia technology,the Internet,Web technology, communities in cyberspace and many more systems. I am considering here an analysis which shows the  contrasts between some of the Western behaviour patterns, the Western beliefs and values that are encountered in the Internet; what they mean and how they function, and the traditional Eastern patterns and their development, subject to the influence of this powerful new technology.

In addition to sharing an Internet culture in the present generation, I would also like to base this analysis on a contrasting translation theory, since the cultural implications for translation show up linguistic lacunae which are hard to overcome. Translators are always faced with the problem of how to deal with the cultural aspects contained in a source text (ST) and how to find the most suitable way to successfully convey those aspects in the target language (TL). Such problems can vary in importance depending on the extent of the cultural and linguistic difference which exists between the two (or more) languages involved.

There are several forms which the cultural implications for translation may take. They range from vocabulary and syntax to ideology and the expected way of life in another culture. A translator has also to make a decision on the importance to be given to certain cultural concepts and also to decide on whether it is necessary or desirable to convey them into the target text. The translator must also take into account the purposes of the author of the source text, in addition to the intended readership for both the source text and the target text. This will also have implications as regards the translator’s attitude to the source text and to the final target text.

 These differences will be analysed in a future article, the preparation of which is now being undertaken by this author.

Sample text in Romanian

Toate ființele umane se nasc libere și egale în demnitate și în drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu rațiune și conștiință și trebuie să se comporte unele față de altele în spiritul fraternității.


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)


What is the secret of a good translation?

I once asked a high level representative what was the key to his success. He replied that it was his lively relationship with his customers and the great devotion he showed in serving their needs. I think this could also be applied to the field of translation. In point of fact, to produce a successful translation, in my opinion, requires great respect not only for the original author but also for the reader, our ultimate customer.

There are two ways to translate, just as there are two ways to live. We can live by following the easiest path, or we can live by taking unknown, unpaved lanes, overcoming all the obstacles which we encounter and climbing hills which get ever steeper. It’s a personal choice. But, in the end, it is the person who chooses the second path who will see vast panoramas and who will have the joy of discovery and the satisfaction of work well done.

First of all, we have to learn to listen, so that we can correctly understand the message in all its width and all its depth. Then, we have to really know our subject, and that demands profound research. In fact, we mustn’t translate like a machine, but like a professional who not only masters the source language and the target language, but who also has a profound knowledge of his or her subject.  This is the case of great translators who often write the preface, the introduction or explanatory notes on the text that is being translated.

And on this hard road, the advice that Irène de Buisseret gave to her students and to her readers is still current: doubt…doubt even what we thought we knew. We must pose questions and search for truth. We must know our abilities and our limits. If research cannot fill in gaps in our knowledge, we must not be afraid of calling on our colleagues or, if necessary, on the author of the text. When necessary, we must show enough humility to confess that it is not our specialised field, or quite simply that we just don’t know.

It’s a question of intellectual integrity: submit yourself to making all the necessary effort to deepen the message and to transmit it from one cultural reality to another one, in all its aspects and with all its nuances.

It seems to me that the act of translation is basically an ethical act. In fact, to produce a good translation, we must have intellectual integrity of a level able to withstand all proofs to the contrary. That sort of integrity, which forces us to do everything so as to transmit the integral message, is rather like the Marathon messenger who, after all the effort he has made in the run, collapses once his message has been delivered.

In my opinion, respecting the standards of personal duty is the corner-stone of translation. The future of our profession depends on it, since that is what is the entire difference between a professional translator and an amateur.

Just as in other professions, our own profession is based on absolute confidence. When we consult doctors, we put our life in their hands; in the same way, when we consult lawyers, we put our reputation in their hands; or yet again, when we consult auditors, we put all our
goods in their hands. The same professional requirements apply to translation.

If we translate in the financial sector and by lack of attention or negligence, we make a mistake, that mistake can cost astronomic sums to shareholders or to the general public; in the same way, if we translate a medical document and by lack or attention or negligence, we make a mistake, that mistake could have harmful consequences on the health or even the life itself of human beings; or yet again, if we translate in the communications sector and, by lack of attention or negligence,  we make a mistake, that mistake could cause important social or political dissension. This type of mistake, if it continues long term, could also have negative repercussions on the target culture.

As a professional, we have a very heavy responsibility.  It is therefore vital that we exercise our profession with all the close attention and care possible, in order to transmit the message in all its exactitude and with all the nuances, while respecting the cultural and social realities of the readers.

Neither should we forget to express our thought in simple and clear language; so that everyone can understand us. We must have sufficient mastery of the source language and the target language to be able to write with simplicity, clarity and intellectual rigour. Also, we must express ourselves with conviction and passion. This means that we have to dedicate to the translation all the ardour of which we are capable. If we use a translation memory program, we must therefore guard against falling into the path of facility.

We must always aim higher. Our profession is a constant call for personal growth and for surpassing ourselves, and that is a challenge that we must take up with courage. Here again, the advice of Irène de Buisseret is still valid: We have to read, she said, we have to read until our eyes jump out of our heads.

If we take the other path, the one with the least effort or for maximum profit, we will become pen-pushers with a low moral level, a low social impact and become a load on the backs of our fellow citizens.
In the world of economic uncertainty in which we live, this question takes on vital importance. In fact, if we want to protect ourselves against the somersaults in this recession, it will not be sufficient to master the translation memory programs but in my opinion, first of all and before anything else we must mark ourselves out as being real professionals from all points of view, because there is always a place for excellence.


An industry-wide, accepted glossary of oil and oil-drilling terminology.

Over the last few months we have been working closely with Brazilian translators and translation companies to produce an industry-wide, accepted glossary of oil and oil-drilling terminology.

Brazil is one of the newest countries in the petroleum field and production is growing very fast indeed and changing the status of Brazil’s economy. It has become one of the most important producers of oil and ethanol. Brazil has also become the tenth largest consumer of energy in the world and is the most important energy consumer in South America.

International companies in the oil drilling industry are becoming more and more interested in the Brazilian market for their products and many of them are signing contracts in Brazil for major oil-drilling operations.

Those same companies are able to operate in the Brazilian oil market using the very latest technology, ensuring that the highest standards are used in Brazilian petroleum exploration.

As these companies become more and more involved in the Brazilian oil industry, they find a need for experts in Portuguese, the language of Brazil, and this language is now rated as being the sixth most spoken language in the world. The new-found ability of Brazil to enter into the world’s international trade has made Portuguese a centre of interest to linguists and to companies in the language field throughout the world.
The vocabulary used in the petroleum industry is large and is constantly developing.

We are now working to build up a full glossary of the terms used, both in Portuguese and in English, and we are calling on people experienced in this industry to check all the translations in that glossary. When we consider that the vocabulary is more or less complete, we will issue the glossary for people in the oil industry. Of course, in an industry which is constantly developing, no glossary is ever “complete”, but we will endeavour to provide the most up-to-date version as of the date of publication.


The largest employer of translators and interpreters in the world is the U.S. government. 

The U.S. intelligence services, mainly consisting of the DIA, NSA and the CIA, also the intelligence services of each of the armed services, plus the FBI, all these intelligence entities employ an undoubtedly vast number of them – the total number being a classified item.

Most of the agencies employ or hire translators, but in many cases, those translators need also to have the ability to interpret spoken language, because often the intelligence obtained is recorded from voice communications. Sometimes the speaker in the communication becomes well-known to the translator, so that he or she is able to comment on changes in the tone of voice, indicating the way that the person concerned was feeling on the day that the recording was made, together with any other nuances which the translator has identified.

It also transpires that the U.S. intelligence agencies have a policy of employing linguists according to a classified set of criteria.
It seems that the person has to be an American citizen and citizens born in the USA are much preferred over naturalised citizens. Then you have to pass a series of tests, of your physical and mental health, your education, your complete life story, everything you have ever done inside and outside the USA, no marriage or “relationships” with foreign persons, plus a sequence of psychological tests, brain scans, etc. on which the intelligence agencies place great store.

And then we come to what should be the most important part, your language or languages where you must pass tests in the foreign language or languages concerned.

If you pass all this, you have to accept a change in your lifestyle, because you will be required to be on duty on a 24 hour basis, mostly working one 8 hour session per day or night; as you are assigned.
You also have to keep the agency informed of any new contacts you may meet. International travel has also to be approved You are also required to submit to your agency anything you may want to publish..

Several other possibilities exist in the official translation field. There are, for example, other government agencies which recruit linguists under contract. According to a paragraph I saw recently “because the United States does such a poor job training translators and interpreters, recruiting enough help is impossible”, so you can apply and after filling out a vast number of forms, you may be sent a letter asking you to come for a language test. If you pass that test, your translations will be paid by the government, but the amounts paid are not very good.

Freelance translators and interpreters do have a choice between working for any company or person who sends them work, or else by working for the government in one of these agencies. The government does not pay very well, but at least it is consistent. The payment comes in from the government at the end of the month, whereas working as a freelance can often mean one wonderful month with good paying work every day, followed by two months with almost no work.


The Management of Technology
Terminological Research

Many companies have recently decided to create a glossary of terminology, specifically intended for their own products.
It’s never easy to work out which products and which technical terms should be used for new products and for their constituent components.
The aim is always to use the same word to describe the same thing.

Big companies have several departments within them, such as research and design, technical analysis, pre-production, production, marketing and legal, all of which tend to use their own terminology for the products and processes involved.

The problem is to identify words which are then accepted by all the departments and interests concerned and to produce a harmonized list of the items concerned.

The most common way of dealing with this problem nowadays is to set up a technology circle.
The various departments and groups have already identified or created their own documentation (for example: software, specifications, user documentation, marketing and legal documents) so problems might arise when attempting to harmonize all the vocabulary in the documents in order to launch a new product or service, particularly if the volume of documents is just too large for a circle of a few representatives to be able to deal with it.

So first of all, a Terminology database has to be created and decisions must be made as to which terms are going to be inserted in that base. It is probable that most of the terms to be inserted are already used by the company for the previous version of a similar product (unless a completely new invention is concerned). We can therefore assume that the terms have been inserted correctly.

When looking at ISO 12620, we see that nearly 200 possible data categories are listed for terminological entry. However, ISO 12620 has only 3 of these categories listed as being compulsory: Term, Source, Date.
Most organisations would prefer to limit their categories to 20 or 30.
The “Definition” is an optional data category for all major terminological standards.

This is understandable because the creation of the Definition is the most expensive and time-consuming part, but on the other hand, the Definition will be the most valuable part when the terminological base is the universal base of knowledge that it should be. Technical employees are able, when using the Definition, to select the correct word from a range of options.

The Definition is also of great assistance to new staff who can understand an unfamiliar concept more easily by means of the Definition than by any other method.

As regards foreign languages, translation of the Definition and of the various names for the product and for its components into the languages to which the company exports should be carried out once the English language version is completed.



Technical Translation was awarded the ISO9001 : 2008 Quality Assurance Certificate in 2009.

This certification takes the following into account:

  • Ownership and intended provision of services
  • Auditing of Technical Translation as regards:
    • Translation dossier front sheets
    • Quotations, etc.
    • List of Approved Suppliers
    • Purchase orders
    • Customer satisfaction records
    • Management review records
    • Quality Audit records
    • Records of Complaints and Non-conformance
    • Customer Accounts
    • Staff Training records
  • Management training and Responsibility
  • Customer Focus
  • Quality Manual Audit
  • Quality Policy Review
  • Forward Planning in Management Reviews
  • Internal Communication
  • Results of Quality Audits
  • Previous Management Review records
  • Complaint file
  • Details of supplier non-conformance and returns
  • Customer Feedback
  • Training records up to date
  • All new enquiries to be recorded
  • All new orders to be allocated a project number
  •  Assigned translator’s identity recorded on the project number
  • Customer document electronic files identified with the project number and stored in computers with password access 
  • All reports and customer files are stored for 3 years in computer.
  • Document data backed up to independent hard-drive on a weekly basis
  • Customer satisfaction questionnaires to be sent to customers
  • All comments from customer questionnaires to be recorded
  • Internal audits to be carried on
  • Discussions with translators to be recorded
  • Actions taken to correct any non-conformance


  • Proof-reading of all translations.
  • Examination of translator CV for new translators
  • Short trial translation by new translator (200 to 300 words)
  • Critical examination of new translator’s translation by established translator
  • First translation by translator subject to critical proof-reading by established translator

Checking practical work experience and qualifications, where appropriate, of translators involved in scientific, technical, medical, legal, financial or accounting translations.


Your company is making good profits in its home country, but it is now finding it difficult to expand any further in that market, so the obvious thing is to find a suitable export market.

Your company team has already spent several months and a great deal of money determining which country to enter.
Finally the decision is taken on the country concerned. Before starting to export your products to that country, your brochures, websites,

advertisements, campaigns, labels on the product, software to be used locally, technical manuals, etc. will need to be translated into the language of the new market.  In any export market, it is very important to ensure that all your communications with possible customers are localized. The customer must feel that your product is destined for him or her, using the language of his or her country with the nuances of language which are used only in that country.

To achieve correct localization, it is very important to take good advice from experienced persons native to the country concerned. The obvious person is a translator who was born and raised in that country – he or she knows the local culture and will make sure that no errors are made in choice of product names or any doubtful use of vocabulary.

Over the years, very large companies have made laughable mistakes when introducing a new product to an export market. 
When General Motors introduced the Chevy Nova to South America, it seems that GM didn’t know that "no va" means "it won't go" in Spanish. When they figured out why it wasn't selling any cars, the car was renamed as the Caribe in Spanish-speaking markets.

Vicks Vapour Rub was obliged to change the spelling of its company name to Wicks, to avoid the unfortunate meaning of the word “Vicks” in German, it being too close to a vulgar term meaning sexual penetration.

Apparently in one campaign, Schweppes Tonic Water was translated into Italian as Schweppes Toilet Water. Just try to sell that !
An American T-shirt maker in Miami printed T-shirts for the Spanish market to promote a visit by Pope John Paul II. They wanted the shirt to say  "I saw the Pope (el Papa)", but their shirts read "I saw the potato (la papa)".

Coors beer also had bad luck in Spain with its ‘Turn it loose’ slogan. It translated as ‘You will suffer from diarrhea’.
All these mistakes resulted from using a translator who did not know the local market, a person who was not a native of that market. 
Technical Translation Ltd has a strict policy of always using only translators who live in the country of their language and who speak that language as natives. When we talk about localization, we really mean local.

Our translators, who have passed our stringent tests, cannot make such errors when localizing your websites, advertising, brochures, etc. You can be sure that the people in your export market will be happy to accept your product, using locally acceptable vocabulary.



This author has spent the last 25 years as a professional translator and over that time has done almost every type of translation that one could imagine.
After those twenty-five years, he has decided that he greatly prefers translation of technical text to translation of marketing text.

Why would that be?  Basically because in technical translation, there is hardly any need for spending a long time in the beautification of the translated text. As long as the translator has good knowledge of the technical subject concerned, he or she can translate the source text into the target text, and his or her major preoccupation is to make sure that the correct meaning of the source text is properly conveyed in the target text. As long as the meaning of the source texts is correctly translated, there is little requirement for making the target text more attractive.

Of course, ugly sentence constructions should be avoided, and the technical translator has to make sure during proof-reading that the final version of the translated text is correct and easy to read, but hours do not have to be spent trying to entice the reader into purchasing a particular product – something that is often required for marketing documents.

Some people will not agree with this approach, but if we consider that a translator sometimes has to translate a long list of components, item by item with their individual prices, there is not much room for commercial artistry in that sort of translation.

The same applies to technical and legal text:
The supplier shall guarantee the conformity of the items supplied against any material or manufacturing faults and that all of the items supplied as part of the performance of this present contract are new and have never been used. The supplier shall guarantee furthermore that the items supplied in the performance of the contract have no defects due to their design, to the materials used or to their use or due to any act or omission of the supplier, arising during the normal use of the items supplied.”

This text is not attractive, but it does convey the meaning of the original and enables the supplier to know exactly what it has to do. An experienced translator can type or dictate this translation in the shortest possible time, which enables his company to charge a lower price to their customer. An experienced technical translator, translating a document on a subject which he or she is familiar, can translate 10,000 words in a day.

On the other hand, advertising or marketing translation cannot be produced so quickly. A first version is typed - a discussion then ensues with another translator as to the attractiveness (or non-attractiveness) of the translation.  A further attempt is made, more discussion ensues, and half a page of advertising text can take up most of a morning. 

We were asked one morning for a two or three word slogan to be added to a poster for ladies’ shoes. Various people in the company, used to advertising, gave their opinions and we eventually decided on the two words by the evening. Fortunately, the customer was happy with our translation and with the increase in sales which ensued.


An increase in enquiries concerning registration of domain names in China

An increase in enquiries concerning registration of domain names in China has been seen recently. Almost all companies or individuals doing business in China will get one of the following letters or emails, sooner or later:

1.  An email or letter telling you to prevent someone in China from registering your domain name;
2. An email or letter urging you to register your domain name in China immediately, to stop someone else from registering your domain name/
3.  A message informing you of what you need to do to make sure that your domain name registration in China does not expire.

As far as we can tell, all of these messages that we have seen or received are scams (and we have seen many of these messages because companies and individuals are constantly asking us about them). If you really do have a Chinese domain name, maybe item no. 3 above may not be a scam, but if you do not have a Chinese domain name, it is certainly is a scam. It is an attempt to get some money from you for doing nothing.

You also may get emails from someone claiming to have already registered a domain which is close in spelling or pronunciation to your company name (or to one of your product names) and is trying to sell it to you. For example, if your company is called “wxykitten” and you already own the “” domain name, you may get an email from someone who has purchased the domain and now wants to sell it to you.
Reflection took place on how these types of emails would increase when ICANN (Corporation for Assigned Names and Number) would start accepting applications for domain names using non-Latin characters (i.e., Chinese) and, as you might guess, that appears to have happened now that ICANN has started accepting Chinese character domain names.

So what should you do if you receive an email offering to protect you from “other companies/people” who wish to register a Chinese translation or a variant of your name or product or else someone trying to sell you a translation or variant already registered?
First of all, register as soon as possible whatever domains you need to protect your company or brand. Determine immediately which domain names are necessary for your business so that you do not have to make this determination in a sudden hurry. Right now is the best time to think about registering Chinese character domain names.

Secondly, if someone has already actually registered a domain name that is important to your business and they are now offering to sell it to you, basically you have three choices:

1, Let the domain name go and stop worrying about it.
2. Buy it from the company that ‘took’ it from you.
3. Start a legal action against the company that took it from you.

Immediate registration is your best and least expensive course of action. If you do not want someone stealing your company name or one of your product names (or some variant of these) and using them as a domain name, make sure to register those words as domain names today.
You should also decide whether it would make sense to register your trademark in China or in any other country where you do business.



The last few years have seen a vast increase in the number of new translators. The reason why is that with the world-wide recession, many employees aged fifty or over found themselves without a job and, when they couldn’t find a new job but they knew a foreign language, they decided to get into freelance translation.

Many people who have worked in a foreign country for several years have managed to become fluent in the language of the place where they were working. Such people can often be good translators, because they know the vocabulary of the industry in which they were working. The world of industry comes to mind first, because so many of our new translators worked abroad as engineers, technicians or scientists, but in fact there are also many new translators who have worked abroad for several years and who have good knowledge of their profession: law, medicine, finance, etc. in a foreign language.

The great advantage of these people is that not only do they know the vocabulary of the discipline concerned, they also have intimate knowledge of the discipline itself. They know how things work. This can sometimes make such people more valuable to a translation agency than other professional linguists who have worked in the translation business ever since they left university.

Of course, a professional linguist who has been continuously producing translation over the last twenty years is much faster in his or her translation work than someone who is, in effect, a new kid in the business, but on the other hand, these new translators who learnt their foreign language during practical work in foreign countries do not need to use a dictionary, because the foreign vocabulary is second nature to them.

Technical Translation is always happy to receive applications from these “practical” translators. We ask them to translate a short specimen page and then have them work on a longer translation, subject, of course, to proof-reading by an established translator. As they progress, they become a valuable addition to our team of some 3000 authorised translators.

This is especially valuable in the case of medical practitioners for the translation of medical documents. We are absolutely concerned to ensure that any medical document is translated only by a person who has the relevant medical training and certification, to ensure the safety of persons described in or personally concerned by the document.


Expert Technical Translators Announces Integration of New Service

Technical Translation LTD Combines Website Designing and Localisation

Oxford, UK-19 March 2014. Technical Translation Ltd (TTL), a website focusing on multi-platform translation services, offers a new service that targets website designing complete with translation and localisation. As a sign of quality, the company is an ISO 9001 registered firm and its content management team are certified expert Ezine article authors. Ezine is an online directory of high quality articles.

Wide Array of Services and Specialities

Translators at TTL aren't just expert linguists and translators. In order to provide the best quality, they hire language experts who are also knowledgeable about specialised industries that TTL currently serves. In many cases, these specialised translators spend most of their working lives in the following professions: automotive, electronic, agricultural, construction, finance, legal, multimedia, technical, engineering, insurance and marketing.

As for the new service, the whole premise behind the combination of website designing and translation is founded within the idea of the internet's boundless reach. Most viewers of a certain website won't necessarily all come from the same region. Some UK-based sites, for example, receive a considerable amount of worldwide viewers from Asia and Latin America or elsewhere in Europe where English is not the primary language. TTL considered this opportunity and established its Aftrans subsidiary. It aims to help website owners to modify certain aspects of their sites and transform them into a language they're most comfortable with. It gives a certain look of globalisation when users can easily set language preferences while browsing their site.

Aside from this new offer, TTL also caters technical translation services (thus the name) in very meticulous stages. The process starts with inspection. Here, the original document is analysed to check for any field specialisation. It is then passed to translators from that field. Constant communication with the client will be followed throughout the whole translation procedure. Translators only translate while using their native language, falling within their specialist knowledge and when fully conversant for a certain set language. As the team goes on to this process, project managers also determine whether or not a certain translation job needs a team of translators or just an individual professional to finish the whole job. TTL also crafts technical translation glossaries for each customer. Proof-reading and sworn translations are also inclusive of quoted services.

Other TTL services include Desk-top publishing and technical interpreter services.

Triple Solutions in One

With all this expertise, TTL is sure to deliver accurate, speedy and low-cost technical translations. The company's two decades worth of service made it one of UK's top translation companies. Quick turn around is set by two factors: practical working experience of specialist translators and aid of the latest translation memory programs that cut the whole process time by as much as 50%. Lastly, since there is time reduction, cost-reduction normally follows suit.

About Technical Translation Ltd
With more than 20 years of collective experience in the fast-pace industry of translation services, TTL is on top of mind for most industry-specific clients such as Philips, Caterpillar and Oxford University Press. It is awarded ISO 9001 for its specialist technical translators while being committed to accuracy, speed and low-cost solutions in numerous industries.

John Hadfield
+44 (0)1869 240 560+44 (0)1869 240 560
John Eccles House, Robert Robinson Avenue, The Oxford Science Park, Oxford OX4 4GP


Translating in the New World of the Net

Technical Translation sees the changes that are taking place in the world and we want our customers to benefit from those changes.

While in the 20th century, many large companies and corporations were able to use only English as their means of communication with possible customers, the atmosphere is now changing.  With incredible progress over the last few years in countries such as Brazil, India, Russia, China and South Africa (the “BRICS” countries) inevitably those countries are now in a position where they expect the rest of the world to speak to them in their own languages. In more recent years, it would seem that the same also applies to the MIKT countries (Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey). A very large percentage of the population of those countries knows only their native language, so if you want to sell to them, in particular over the Internet, you have to speak their language.

There are about 480 million people in the world who speak English as their native language. Spanish speakers number about 330 million and there are more than 1120 million Chinese speakers.  All these people are looking on the Web for goods, services, education and leisure pursuits – it would be useless to speak to them only in English. If European or American companies do not offer their products in the language of the prospective consumer, they will lose out to more advanced competition.

Of course, Technical Translation can assist any company in localizing and globalizing their products, by translating websites, Internet catalogues, price lists and so on. Customers expect to be able to read about products and services in their own languages and translation into those languages will lead to a considerable improvement in sales. However, more attention needs also to be given to page layout and positioning of suitable photographs.  We must remember that Arabic speakers read from right to left and in the case of appealing to the Arab and Pakistan part of the world, we must also ensure that all photos are suitable for a Muslim audience.

Chinese readers take a completely different approach in their method of reading a screen, so when translating for the Chinese world, a native Chinese editor with good experience of Internet advertising should be used to ensure that the pages are made up in the right manner.

Of course, your content is the most important item on your website, but it is also necessary to take into account regional and country-wide preferences and layouts and Technical Translation can put you into touch with native specialists who can advise you on this point.

If you would like to ask any questions regarding localization and globalization, please do not hesitate to call our specialist on this subject, John Hadfield at Technical Translation Ltd, who will be pleased to discuss your problems and offer advice.


Legal Translation Services

In today’s world, boundaries do not exist where business communication is involved. The way that business works has been changed forever by Telecommunication. Successful companies find that communication forms an extremely important component of their success, and if it is not performed properly, severe problems can result for a business.

Around 6500 languages exist in the world, so it is absolutely impossible to learn or to interpret all of them. When overseas clients are meeting your company, the specialized services of a translator/interpreter will be needed to avoid any mistakes in communication.

Translation and interpreting require accuracy and clarity: they are the most important factors for comprehension by both parties. When you hire competent translation or interpreting services you ensure that your company is able to meet world-wide standards and that it can deal with foreign customers in a civilized manner.

A professional translation agency must be able to provide the following services, among others:

1.Software Localization
Dealing with foreign customers requires a high amount of accuracy. Under no circumstances must clarity must be compromised in any way. Software localization is not only concerned with translation of the user interface; it must also ensure that the language of the country concerned is correctly translated and that any necessary adaptations are made to ensure correct “localization”.

This can be a very complicated process. The principal advantage of software localization is its ability to reach audiences in various countries and to create a wide range of customers in foreign countries so that the company acquires an international reputation and in this way is able to increase its sales.

A product that has been properly localized conveys to the user a feeling that the software has been designed for him/her. A sense of reliability and comfort when using the product is communicated to the user. Another good result is that there are fewer customer support calls and that customer satisfaction is increased. Localized software should also take into account the cultural aspects of the country concerned so as to provide an interesting experience for the customers.

2.Medical Interpreting
The job of a medical interpreter is to provide communication between medical personnel and/or with the families of the patient concerned. A medical interpreter who knows several languages must be aware of the proper terminology in those languages for the medicines, medical procedures, the medical examination process, etc. The use of interpreters who are not medically trained can cause serious problems. Accuracy and clarity is of the utmost importance for medical interpreting, since the smallest mistake can have very unfortunate results.

3.Patent Translation Services
Patent laws vary in different countries.  Appropriate knowledge is required in order to provide thorough understanding of the language and the process. Protection of intellectual property requires the correct translation of the patent. Patent translation is often necessary in different fields: legal, financial, intellectual property, science, and media.

Some patent documents can be difficult to understand, even when their text is in your native language. When they are written in a foreign language, they can be far more difficult to understand. This is where you will need the services of a translator specializing in  patents. Patent translation should be entrusted to translators who meet the client’s requirements as regards talent, skill and expertise. Patent documents are extremely important from a legal point of view and they can often be difficult to understand.
This is why you need a dedicated patent translation company which is able to translate the patent document with the care that comes from long experience..